Recombinant DNA Technology is the driving force behind genetic studies and biotechnology. It is considered one of the most vital skills for each and every aspiring researcher in the biological or medical fields. In recombinant DNA technology, new DNA molecules are constructed by combining at-least two distinct DNA molecules. This process was initially discovered in the 1970s and since then, it has proven to be an absolutely necessary technology in the Biotechnology laboratories.
This technology possesses numerous applications in a variety of distinct fields. It is a usual process in medical research, biotechnology, and genetics studies. Using this technology, desired cells can be manipulated to generate various medically significant proteins, molecules, etc. This technology holds important roles even in animal studies and agriculture as well. Genetically manipulated organisms or crops are the outcomes of this ever-expanding field.
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Recombinant DNA technology is a process in which DNA molecules belonging to two distinct species are combined together.
The technology involves utilising enzymes and several laboratory methodologies for manipulating and isolating the desired DNA segments. This technology can be utilised to integrate (or splice) DNA from distinct species or to form genes possessing new functions. The resultant copies are often known as recombinant DNA. This kind of work generally involves the propagation of the recombinant DNA in yeast or bacterial cell, whose cellular machinery duplicates the engineered DNA along with its own.
Are you wondering how recombinant DNA is made? Don’t worry! Our science assignment help experts will answer your question systematically.
Three different methods are available to construct Recombinant DNA which includes Transformation, Non-bacterial transformation, and Phage Introduction. Our assessment help experts have explained each of these methods one by one:
In this process, the first step is the selection of a DNA piece to be placed
inside a vector. In the next step, that DNA segment is cut down making use of a restriction enzyme, and thereafter, the inserted DNA is ligated in the vector with the help of DNA Ligase. The DNA insert comprises a selectable marker that aids in identifying the recombinant molecules. The antibiotic marker is generally utilised and thus, a host cell deprived of a vector dies on exposure to the specific antibiotic, and the host possessing the vector will survive since it is resistant.
The process in which a vector is placed into a host cell is called transformation. An instance of a plausible host cell is E. Coli.
The selectable markers may be for colour changes, antibiotic resistance, or any other feature that can differentiate the transformed hosts from non-transformed hosts. Distinct vectors possess distinct features so that they are suitable for distinct applications. Some features can involve size, symmetrical sites of cloning, and more copy numbers.
This process is more likely similar to the aforementioned process i.e. Transformation. The major distinction between the two processes is that non-bacterial transformation does not make use of bacteria like E. Coli for the host.
In the process of microinjection, DNA is directly injected into the transformed cell’s nucleus. In the case of biolistics, host cells are being bombarded with micro-projectiles of high velocity for instance: particles of tungsten or gold coated
This is the transfection process that is also more or less identical to transformation. Here the major difference is that a phage is employed rather than bacteria. In this phenomenon, in-vitro packaging of vectors is utilised.
The process involves the exploitation of lambda or MI3 phage to generate phage plaques comprising recombinants. The created recombinants may be identified by the differences in the case of recombinants or non-recombinants utilising several selection methodologies. Scientists have to regularly utilise recombinant DNA to append traits into specific bacterial species or generate organisms having additional traits.
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Eukaryotic organisms going through sexual reproduction must also undergo the meiosis process that lowers down the genetic material bringing about fertilization. During the meiotic process, the eukaryotic chromosomes are condensed and form pairing with the homologous chromosomes. Each homologous chromosome pair denotes a similar DNA sequence from the distinct origins of a parent. During the meiosis process when homologs are connected, they exchange similar DNA sequences via the crossing-over process. If genetic recombination does not occur, the gene variety would be restricted.
Suppose that there are two alleles for colour of coat (white and black) in a population and there are two alleles for colour of eyes (blue and brown). Without the availability of recombinant DNA, organisms could pass on only the combination of alleles that was passed from the parents.
Recombinant DNA Technology is widely utilised in the field of modern agriculture. With the invention of the genetic engineering field and this technology, scientists are capable of identifying and segregating the desired genes and placing them in crop species.
To enhance insect resistance, for example, scientists have inserted the bacterial genes into the DNA of crops like corn, cotton, etc. The genes that they have chosen yield the protein Bt which is lethal to the larvae of insects that eat it. So, scientists created recombinant DNA from those bacterial genomes. Then this new DNA is inserted into the protected crop’s genome. When the new plants initiate to grow, their cells express that bacterial DNA and produce the protein Bt.
Farmers who do not prefer growing genetically manipulated crops have to spray the crops with pesticides that are very costly. Crops producing Bt protein protect themselves while growing. This is vital taking into consideration that crop-eating insects perform over a billion dollars of deterioration annually. With Recombinant DNA technology, this loss could be precluded.
Sickle-cell anemia lies under the category of inherited blood disorders that poses an impact on millions of people throughout the world. Like numerous genetic disorders, this disease had no cure. Patients suffering from sickle-cell anemia had to undergo a number of dangerous procedures for extending their lives.
However, with gene therapy using recombinant DNA technology, cells stricken by genetic disorders can restore their functioning. Mice having sickle-cell traits were first of all treated by researchers of Harvard University with the delivery of the DNA for the adequate formation of blood cells via a modified HIV virus. Since HIV possesses a proclivity for an immune system, it easily deposited the recombinant DNA in the stem cells extracted from the host.
With the proper rules and guidelines, Recombinant DNA Technology will surely revolutionize the world in a positive manner. Now, did you get a clear idea of the Recombinant DNA Technology? Or you are still confused and looking for someone whom you can ask ‘do my assignment’ based on the same? In that case, just approach the experts at Sample Assignment without having a second thought. Your queries will get resolved instantly.
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Glick, B. R., & Patten, C. L. (2017). Molecular biotechnology: principles and applications of recombinant DNA (Vol. 34). John Wiley & Sons.
Khan, S., Ullah, M. W., Siddique, R., Nabi, G., Manan, S., Yousaf, M., & Hou, H. (2016). Role of recombinant DNA technology to improve life. International journal of genomics, 2016.
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