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Thomas and Znaniecki were the first authors to introduce principles of the theory in their research between 1918 and 1920. They studied how a person's thought process is determined by the interaction between their behavior and their situation. In 1925 Park and Burgess developed a second theory more linked to ecological concepts, in which urban societies were defined as environments that interacted with each other in the same way that occurs in nature according to Darwin's theory of evolution.
Based on this idea, society is defined as an entity that operates as a single organism.
In 1934 Edwin Sutherland adopted the principles of disorganization theory to explain the growth of crime in developing societies belonging to the proletariat. According to the author, this evolution brings with it a series of cultural changes that can increase the crime rate.
In 1942 two authors from the Chicago School of Criminology - named Henry McKay and Clifford Shaw - developed the definitive theory of social disorganization as a product of their research. The theory of the two authors indicates that the physical and social environment in which an individual grows up (or inhabits) is the main reason for all the behaviors that they carry out based on their behavior.
This is a theory related mainly to the study of crimes and is used to predict where a crime may occur according to the type of neighborhood.
According to both authors, the places where crimes are most commonly carried out in the United States tend to have three main factors: their inhabitants tend to be of varying ethnicities, there is a high level of poverty, and health conditions are precarious.
According to the results of their studies, Shaw and McKay affirmed that crime is not a reflection of individual actions, but the collective state of individuals. According to this theory, crimes are acts committed in response to abnormal living conditions.
It is usually used as a tool to predict the location and prevention of youth violence, by locating environments that meet the given characteristics.
Although Shaw and McKay were the authors who laid the foundations for the development of the theory of social disorganization, other subsequent authors have worked based on their research to expand the concept.
In 1955 Robert Faris adopted the principles of the concept to take them further. Through social disorganization theory, he also explained the emergence of high rates of suicide, mental illness, and gang violence. According to Farris, social disorganization weakens the relationships that make up a society.
Robert Bursik supported the theory of Shaw and McKay, stating that a neighborhood can continue to present the same state of disorganization even if its inhabitants change. This concept had been introduced by McKay and Shaw themselves but had received various criticisms. The Bursik study reconfirmed this concept.
In 1993 Robert Sampson assessed that the largest number of crimes in low-income communities are usually committed by groups in their teens. He relates the emergence of these trends with the lack of social control to prevent young people from growing up in environments prone to violence.
The collapse of community controls- When a neighborhood begins to lose the natural control that must exist for everything to function normally, people begin to modify their behavior to adapt to the new conditions. This creates disorder in these small societies.
Uncontrolled immigration- Immigrants, especially illegal ones, often come to underprivileged neighborhoods to settle initially. In turn, immigrants who come to these neighborhoods may be low-income and poorly educated, leading to local problems with residents.
Social factors- Certain social factors are identified with disorganization. These include divorces, the birth of illegitimate children, and a disproportionate amount of male population in a neighborhood.
What is a social disorganization theory example?
The emergence of local gangs in socially disorganized neighborhoods is one of the clearest examples to explain the theory. The precarious living conditions create a cultural environment that lends itself to the formation of groups with members who support each other.
What influences a person to commit a crime?
There is some correlation, but we cannot say that it is the cause. The economy is related to another series of factors that in turn influence crime: Family system: large families, family disintegration, domestic violence, family abandonment.
What are the Criminological theories?
The subject criminological theories have as objective that the student knows the different explanations that are of individual criminal behavior (from its origin, its continuation and its cessation) as well as also the explanation of crime rates in different contexts.
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