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What Is Socket Programming?
According to our experts offering help with Socket Programming in C Assignment, one way to get two programs to transmit data, based on the TCP / IP protocol, is socket programming. A socket is nothing more than a "communication channel" between two programs that run on different computers or even on the same computer.
From a programming point of view, a socket is nothing more than a "file" that is opened especially. Once open, data can be written to and read from it with the usual C language read () and write () functions.
There are two types of "communication channels" or sockets, connection-oriented and non-connection-oriented.
In the first case, both programs must connect with a socket and until the connection is established correctly, neither of them can transmit data. This is the TCP port of the TCP / IP protocol, and it guarantees that all data will get from one program to the other correctly. It is used when the information to be transmitted is important, no data can be lost and it does not matter that the programs are "blocked" waiting or transmitting data. If one of the programs is busy with something else and does not attend the communication, the other will be blocked until the first one reads or writes the data.
In the second case, the programs don't need to connect. Either of them can transmit data at any time, regardless of whether the other program is "listening" or not. It is the so-called UDP protocol, and guarantees that the data that arrives are correct, but does not guarantee that all of them will arrive. It is used when the program mustn't get stuck and it does not matter that data is lost.
Imagine, for example, a program that is controlling the temperature of an oven and sends that temperature to a computer in a control room so that it displays temperature graphs. The control of the oven is more important than the perfect refreshment of the graphics. The program cannot be stuck without attending to the oven simply because the computer displaying the graphics is busy with something else.
Unix / Linux Files Involved
C Academic Assistance through Online Tutoring experts explain that No files are strictly necessary for socket programming. Knowing the IP address and the service number, they are put directly into code and all solved. However, this is not the most comfortable or portable from some computers to others.
There are two files in UNIX / LINUX that facilitate this task, although you must have root permissions to modify them. These files would be the equivalent of a telephone book, in one we have the name of the company with its telephone number and in the other file the name of the person and its extension (EmpresaGorda, tlfn 123.456.789; JoseGordo, extension 2245 ; ...)
/ Etc / Hosts: This is the directory in which we have the companies and their phone numbers. In this file, there is a list of names of computers connected to the network and the IP address of each one. Usually, in the client / etc. / hosts the name of the server and its IP address is usually placed. Then, from the program, a call is made to the gethostbyname ()function, to which passing the name of the computer as a string of characters, it returns a data structure including the IP address.
One line of what can appear in this file is the following, in which we see the IP address and the name of the computer that gives us the Quake service.
On Windows, this file is usually found at C: \ WINNT \ system32 \ drivers \ etc \ hosts.
/ etc / services: This file is the equivalent of the directory where we have the different departments/people of the company and their telephone extension numbers listed. In this file there is a list of available services, indicating service name, service number and type (FTP / UDP).
Both the server and the client must have in this file the service they are attending/requesting with the same number and type of service. The name may be different, just like everyone on their agenda puts the name they want, but it is not usual.
From the program, both the client and the server must make a call to the getservbyname ()function, to which passing the name of the service, it returns a data structure including the service number and the type.
An example of what can appear in a / etc / services file is the following, in which we see in each line the name of the service, number / type and an optional comment after the # symbol. "Coincidentally", you see the www service, whose service number known to all computers on the Internet is 80.
In Windows, the file of yore is in C: \ WINNT \ system32 \ drivers \ etc \ services
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